Published 2010 by U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station in Newtown Square, PA .
Written in EnglishRead online
Evaluated various techniques for determining the density (i.e., bulk density) of fine woody debris during forest inventory activities. It was found that only experts in dead wood inventory may be able to identify fine woody debris stages of decay. Suggests various future research directions such as development of a 2-class fine woody debris decay class system.
|Statement||Becky Fasth ... [et al.].|
|Series||Research paper NRS -- 11, Research paper NRS -- 11.|
|Contributions||United States. Forest Service. Northern Research Station|
|LC Classifications||SD551 .E83 2010|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||18 p. :|
|Number of Pages||18|
|LC Control Number||2010497781|
Download Evaluation of techniques for determining the density of fine woody debris
Get this from a library. Evaluation of techniques for determining the density of fine woody debris. [Becky Fasth; United States. Forest Service. Northern Research Station.;] -- Evaluated various techniques for determining the density (i.e., bulk density) of fine woody debris during forest inventory activities.
It was found that only experts in dead wood inventory may be. Accurate estimation of fine woody debris (FWD) population attributes (e.g., biomass) is a critical component of nationwide efforts to quantify carbon stocks and wildfire hazards.
FWD can be defined as any piece of dead woody debris greater than cm and less than 10 cm in diameter and typically represents material such as tree and shrub. selected as the most appropriate one.
Consequences for coarse woody debris volume estimates of forest reserves vary. Total dead wood volume can even be much larger when fine woody debris, dead wood attached to living trees and tree stumps are included. Keywords: coarse woody debris, dead wood, forest reserves, volume calculations ISSN File Size: KB.
debris volume (> 1 Ocm diameter) on 1/4 hectare fixed-area plots, when perpendicular lines were used. The Fischer Photo Guide () for woody fuels did not quantify large down debris as precisely as the line transect method on 1/4 hectare plots.
Chi-square tests found that down debris had a clumped spatial distribution in 23% of the tests. Down woody components and fuels estimated by the FIA program are: coarse woody, fine woody, litter, herb/shrubs, slash, duff, and fuelbed depth. Any crew member can learn to collect down woody materials data.
If untrained members of the crew are available to help, they can locate, measure, and flag transect. An Evaluation of the Impact of Large Woody Debris in Watercourses on Flood Flows 1. Introduction Interest in the role of land use and floodplain management in controlling flood flows has stimulated research into the effects vegetation and woody debris have on flow conveyance.
Large woody debris (LWD) is a term applied to pieces of dead woodFile Size: 3MB. Coarse woody debris (CWD) or coarse woody habitat (CWH) refers to fallen dead trees and the remains of large branches on the ground in forests and in rivers or wetlands.
A dead standing tree – known as a snag – provides many of the same functions as coarse woody debris. The minimum size required for woody debris to be defined as "coarse" varies by author, ranging from –20 cm (1–8 in. Comparisons of coarse woody debris in northern Michigan forests by sampling method and stand type Technical Report January CITATION 1 density, B) length, and C) volume of coarse woody debris coarse woody debris is enough in managed forests, several questions need to be answered: 1).
Woody Debris Assessment Datasheet and Evaluation Form Appendix C Large Woody Debris Management Action, Resources and Relative Cost Appendix D Duckbill Anchor and Cable Capacities in Relation to Buoyancy Force Appendix E TABLE OF TABLES Table Page Number 1.
Habitats created by large woody debris. 7 2. Woody debris assessment data needs. 13 3. Evaluation of the Success of Adding Large Woody Debris to Streams. LWD has an effect on local scour and pool development (House et al.House et al.
Richmond and FauschSkaugset et al.and Wallace et al. Although, on average, only 14% of LWD pieces functioned as cover for many aquatic species, smaller. taxon diversity than the control samples.
In the second paper, I describe effects of fine woody debris on 0+ brown trout, studied in laboratory stream channels. Trout were tested in habitats without fine woody debris, with an intermediate fine woody debris density, and. Total woody debris was collected in samplings; as bilateral diameters of all woody debris parts were less than 10 cm, all woody parts were in the “fine woody debris (FWD)” class.
map included smaller logs. Reach-mean debris density was logs km-1 in and logs km-1 in (formations omitted). Debris density was greatest in channel segments immediately downstream from the knickpoint.
Debris stability during the period between the two maps was related to LWD orientation and channel evolution. Estimation of wood density allows the first three of the four classes of decay to be distinguished, while trees in the last two decay classes could be distinguished using wood volume.
Beech fine woody debris with a diameter between 1 and 10 cm decays within about 18 years. The litter fraction of Cited by: Coarse Woody Debris Management Strategy 5. Maximize natural area ecosystem health and to contribute to sustaining or enhancing local, indigenous biodiversity by: increasing the total volume of coarse woody debris in our natural areas to a level that is representative of comparable unmanaged natural areas achieving the following.
3) is the wood density of living trees of plot j, weighted by their basal area. For CWD in decay class three, the average value of density for debris in ‘decay class three’ from published studies of humid, lowland neotropical forests ( g cm-3) can be used, as suggested by .
Site-specific measurements of decomposition class density. Coarse woody debris Coarse woody debris (CWD), synonymous with large woody debris, is a term used to describe woodfrom dead trees. Although an exact definition is not avail-able, many researchers include all pieces of wood that are at least 10 cm in diameter and 1 m in length.
CWD can consist of any coarse part of a dead tree, such as. The fine woody debris are measure in categories; less than.5 cm, 5. to 1 cm, 1 to 3 cm, 3 to 5 cm and 5 to 7 cm. Use a “go - no go” gauge to determine which size category the piece falls into. Record the number in each category as you move along the line.
Coarse Woody Debris decomposition - principles, rates and models Coarse Woody Debris • forms part of the dead wood cycle, • is primarily created by tree death, and • persists for some time Natural disturbances (including insects and diseases) can add much CWD and forest harvesting activities can remove much Size: 1MB.
dead, non-self-supporting, woody material in various stages of decomposi-tion, located above the soil.1 While a minimum diameter of 10 cm is com-monly used to separate CWD from fine woody debris, this parameter may vary with study objectives.
In some cases CWD is defined based on mini-mum piece diameter and length (e.g., >10 cm and > m). Survey and Classification of Large Woody Debris (LWD) in Streams Using Generated Low-Cost Geomatic Products Article (PDF Available) in Remote Sensing. Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important component of temperate stream and forest ecosystems.
This chapter reviews the rates at which CWD is added and removed from ecosystems, the biomass found in streams and forests, and many functions that CWD serves. CWD is added to ecosystems by numerous mechanisms, including wind, fire, insect attack Cited by: The objectives of this project were two-fold: 1) to develop cost-effective methods for monitoring coarse woody debris volume at a scale appropriate to northeastern forest management and 2) to discern the potential impacts of forest management on CWD Size: 1MB.
the cool, moist microsites created by woody debris as nesting/feeding areas. Figure Generalized illustration of coarse and fine woody debris. (WDNR) Figure Coarse woody debris provides cover, food, habitat structure, and growing sites for many different animals and plants.
(WDNR, Jeff Martin) Woody detritus, like branches, twigs and File Size: 3MB. Table 1- Coarse woody debri s volume and density at Caspar Creek, California.
Valley Floor Potential + Effective Potential Effective Pool-Associated Debris Jams Eflective Pool-Associated Total +S.E. Area Density (m3) (ha) (m3/ha Ork * 41 * 34 h 16 84 f: 14 57 j, 20 38 zk 8.
The most frequently used is experimental research, aimed at determining the probability of blockage conditions. Lyn et al. conducted a set of experiments to assess the blocking process.
Firstly, they replied river conditions through the construction of a hydraulic model. Then, some woody debris were placed in Cited by: 3.
decomposing agents for coarse woody debris in lakes and streams are bacteria and actinomycetes, which are limited to the surface of the wood. The mean age of Eastern white pine coarse woody debris in an Ontario lake was years.
Mean calendar date of all annual rings in Ontario coarse woody debris samples was and ranged from to File Size: 1MB. Given a total fertility rate (TFR) ofwhich statement is a correct description of this value. A TFR of means that the average male and female in the population will be replaced by two children plus a fraction to compensate for the death of offspring.
Downed woody debris biomassFor eight stands (three tidal, five nontidal), we used the line-intercept method (Brown, ) to estimate coarse woody debris (CWD) in forests. Changes in wetland forest structure, basal growth, and composition across a tidal gradient.
Large woody debris (LWD) are the logs, sticks, branches, and other wood that falls into streams and debris can influence the flow and the shape of the stream channel.
Large woody debris, grains, and the shape of the bed of the stream are the three main providers of flow resistance, and are thus, a major influence on the shape of the stream channel. Research finds woody debris benefits fish Findings offer new guidance for effective restoration projects January Contributed by Michael Milstein and Phil Roni Adding logs and other woody debris to rivers and streams is one of the oldest and most common measures to improve fish habitat.
The role of insects in terrestrial decomposition remains poorly resolved, particularly for infrequently studied substrates like small diameter woody debris. Uncertainty about how mesh bags used to exclude arthropods may affect decomposition rates continues to impede progress in this by: The Down Woody Materials (DWM) Indicator is a set of variables collected on Phase 3 (forest health) FIA plots.
The DWM Indicator is designed to estimate the biomass of forest ecosystem components not sampled during the FIA Phase 2 inventory. These biomass components include: coarse woody debris, fine woody debris, duff, litter, shrubs/herbs. Resistance due to rigid vegetation or woody debris may be computed given the vegetative density (Petryk and BosmajianShields and Gippel ), defined here as the fraction of flow area blocked by vegetation per unit channel length.
Measurement or estimation of vegetative density is often difficult (Abt et al. e E C C. Woody Debris Research: Overview CTFS Global Forest Carbon Research Initiative.
Markku Larjavaara (Postdoctoral fellow) and Helene Muller-Landau (Lead Scientist) Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama [email protected] and [email protected] Woody Debris Research Protocol: Long Transects CTFS Global Forest Carbon Research Initiative.
distribution of litter, density, content of extractives and the situation in which wood is decaying. The 10 year linear decay default applies to both fine and coarse litter. However, this study will concentrate on coarse woody debris (CWD), because we assume that it will constitute most of the residual biomass following clearing orFile Size: 2MB.
Large Woody Debris Survey 2 TFW Monitoring Program Manual - June debris, the effects of large woody debris on channel morphology, and the distribution of large woody debris within watersheds and stream segments.
Biological Role of Large Woody. Large Woody Debris in Streams Guide No. 21 Large Woody Debris (LWD) is a gen-eral term referring to all wood naturally occurring or artificially placed in streams including branches, stumps, logs and logjams.
Almost all LWD in streams is derived from trees located in File Size: 1MB. Coarse woody debris is an important structure and function unit in forest ecosystem.
This review analyzed the ecological functions of coarse woody debris in forest ecosystem and introduced several hotspots and existing problems in coarse woody debris research field. It is suggested that quantitative research should be intensified in the ecological demands of coarse woody debris for Cited by: of woody debris in streams, and reaches three major conclusions: (1) Large woody debris enhances the quality of fish habitat in all sizes of stream.
Removal of most trees in the riparian zone during logging, combined with thorough stream cleaning and short-rotation timber harvest, has altered the sources, delivery mechanisms, and redis-Cited by:.
At some unknown time people started using the terms Large Woody Material (LWM) or Large Woody Debris (LWD). The use of those terms has varied from the placement of logs, stumps, and rootwads to whole trees with rootwads and limbs attached (Hopkins, ), to portions of trees with or without rootwads (CDEP,).Figures Figure TS14J–1 Large historical logjams of large woody mater- TS14J–3 ial, Great Raft, Red River, LA Figure TS14J–2 White River, IN, with large woody debris TS14J–4 Figure TS14J–3 Definition sketch for geotechnical forces on TS14J–8 buried log Technical Supplement 14J The Use of Large Woody Material for Habitat and Bank.Determination of Hazards Chapters 1 through 3 introduced retrofitting and guided the designer through the technical process of.
pre-selecting retrofitting techniques for consideration. In this chapter, the analyses necessary to determine the flood- and non-flood-related forces and other site-specific considerations that control the design of a.